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Your Results - Condition Details

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Understanding Your Results

6 For Life Health Risk Assessment

Annual Key Health Screenings

CarotidCarotid Artery Disease
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One of the leading causes of stroke is fatty plaque buildup in the carotid arteries, which may block adequate blood flow to the brain. The carotid arteries are the main blood supply to the brain and are located on each side of the neck. Our screening is not meant to be a comprehensive diagnostic exam, but rather a screening to visualize the presence of plaque which may affect the blood flow to the brain. Your Carotid Artery Disease Screening results are reported as one of four (4) categories which describe the amount of plaque buildup identified: Normal, Mild, Moderate, and Significant.

It is possible to have a normal screening result with Life Line Screening and still suffer a stroke or heart attack. LLS screens for the leading causes of stroke, however, we do not screen for every possible cause of stroke. There are no technologies available that can screen for all types of stroke. Please note: We do not screen the heart (coronary arteries) for heart attack risk. If you are experiencing symptoms of a stroke or heart attack SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY.

AFibAtrial Fibrillation
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Atrial Fibrillation or AF is the most common type of irregular heart rhythm or arrhythmia. During AF, the upper chambers of the heart beat rapidly and irregularly so that blood is not completely pumped out of the heart. This can cause blood to collect in the heart and form a blood clot. If the clot travels to the brain, it can cause a stroke. Our screening is a 4-limb EKG and is not meant to be a comprehensive 12-lead EKG (electrocardiogram). It is a screening to identify only the presence or absence of an atrial fibrillation heart rhythm at the time of the screening.

Abdominal Aortic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
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The aorta is the largest artery in the body, traveling from your breastbone to the level of your navel. Medical conditions, such as high blood pressure and fatty plaque buildup, can weaken the walls of the aorta, causing an enlargement or aneurysm. An aneurysm can form in any section of the aorta, but they are most common in the belly area (abdominal aorta). 

Our screening uses an ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta to screen for the presence of either type of aneurysm that is 3 cm or greater.

PADPeripheral Arterial Disease
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Peripheral arterial disease or PAD is a condition in which fatty plaque builds up in the arteries leading to the arms and legs. One way to screen for PAD is by measuring the Ankle-brachial index (ABI). A small ultrasound device is used to measure your systolic pressures in both of the arms and legs. A ratio less than 0.90 indicates plaque buildup and possible peripheral arterial disease. A ratio of 0.90 to 1.3 is considered normal.

OsteoOsteoporosis Risk Assessment
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Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones are severely weakened and brittle. As a result, fractures occur easily. Life Line Screening performs an osteoporosis risk assessment using quantitative ultrasound to measure the density of the heel bone. The heel is measured because its bone is similar to that found in the spine or hip, where osteoporotic fractures occur most.

This screening is a risk assessment for bone loss and is not meant to diagnose osteoporosis. Further evaluation and diagnostics may be considered. Talk to your physician about your risk factors for bone loss.

BMIBody Mass Index
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Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a person's weight and height, that correlates with total body fat amount. BMI screening is used to assess excess weight. If your weight and height were measured at the screening event, these values were used to calculate your BMI. Otherwise, your self-reported weight and height were used. Based on the calculated BMI, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute categorizes a person's BMI as Underweight, Normal, Overweight or Obese. The term "Overweight" means having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and/or water. The term "Obese" means having a high amount of extra body fat. Being overweight or obese puts you at higher risk of developing serious health problems, including heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems, and certain cancers. It is important to achieve a healthy weight to reduce your risk of these conditions. Treatment for overweight and obesity includes lifestyle changes, such as reducing calories, following a healthy eating plan and being physically active. 

BMI is calculated as:
Weight in Pounds *703/Height in Inches2

Total CholesterolTotal Cholesterol
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Cholesterol comes from the foods we eat (anything from animals) and from our body (liver). Excessive cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.

HDLHDL (High-Density Lipoprotein)
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HDL carries excess cholesterol away from your arteries. The higher your HDL, the better. An HDL of 40 or higher mg/dL is beneficial and considered protective against heart disease.

LDLLDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein)
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LDL is the main source of cholesterol that contributes to the buildup of fatty plaque in your arteries.

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Triglycerides are another contributing cause of plaque buildup, which can cause artery blockage and heart disease. Triglycerides circulate in your blood, but when you have excess levels, they are stored in the body’s fat cells.

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Glucose is only one indicator for diabetes risk. Obesity, family history, ethnicity, age, blood pressure and cholesterol are also risk factors that should be considered in assessing your overall diabetes risk. 

C reactive ProteinC-Reactive Protein
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CRP is part of your immune system and becomes elevated in your blood as a result of infection or inflammation. Although CRP is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it is a non-specific and should not be used to identify risk alone. Other risk factors including age, family history, blood pressure, smoking status, weight, exercise level and stress level are also considered when assessing cardiovascular disease risk.

*Test performed by LabCorp

ProstateProstate Specific Antigen
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Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance produced by the prostate gland. The PSA screening cannot diagnose prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA may indicate prostate cancer, but can also indicate noncancerous conditions such as prostatitis or an enlarged prostate. Most men have PSA levels under 4 ng/mL, which has traditionally been used as the cutoff for concern about prostate cancer risk. However, just as important as the PSA number is the trend of that number (whether it is increasing and how quickly). We recommend you follow-up with your physician regardless of your PSA screening result to fully evaluate your prostate health.

*Test performed by LabCorp

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The Testosterone screening measures the amount of total testosterone in the blood. Testosterone is a male hormone and is primarily produced by the testicles. As men age, testosterone levels gradually decline. Testosterone Deficiency (also called low testosterone or low T) is called hypogonadism and can be related to advancing age or underlying conditions. Testosterone deficiency can impact a man's cognitive health, muscle mass and strength, bone density, metabolic function and mood.

*Test performed by LabCorp

Heart Risk AssessmentHeart Risk Assessment
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The Heart Risk Assessment Score is based on the Framingham Heart Study's 10-year risk of first time hard coronary heart disease, which includes heart attack (blood flow blocked to the heart muscle) or dying from heart disease in the next 10 years. The Framingham Heart Study is a world-renown landmark study that has generated over 2,000 published articles on the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The algorithm scoring is part of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, issued by the National Institutes of Health. The score applies to adults aged 20 through 79 years who do not have existing heart disease (e.g. previous heart attack),diabetes, carotid artery disease, peripheral arterial disease or an abdominal aortic aneurysm. If you have any of these conditions, your Heart Risk Assessment score is greater than 20%, since these conditions contribute significant risk to heart disease. The risk factors used to determine this score include: age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, treatment for
high blood pressure and smoking status.

Blood PressureBlood Pressure
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Your Blood Pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. Blood Pressure is given as two numbers. The top number is the Systolic Blood Pressure, which is the pressure when the heart beats while pumping blood. The bottom number is the Diastolic Blood Pressure, which is the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats. Blood pressure is measured in mmHg (millimeters of mercury).

Waist MeasurementWaist Measurement
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Waist measurement is a useful screening for health risks associated with excess weight. Excess abdominal fat increases the risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. This risk increases with waist measurements greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men.

6 For Life Health Assessment

Coronary Heart DiseaseCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)
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Coronary Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and occurs when arteries that pump blood to the heart become narrow or clogged by fatty cholesterol deposits. When these vessels are not able to provide enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, chest pain (Angina) develops. If the heart is without enough oxygen for too long, death of heart tissue occurs – also known as a heart attack. There are risk factors for CHD that a person cannot control, such as being male – over age 40, post-menopausal females, having a family history of CHD, and diabetes. However, there are also risk factors such as cigarette smoking, diet and exercise, body weight and high blood pressure which are in your control.

Congestive Heart FailureCongestive Heart Failure (CHF)
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Congestive Heart Failure usually takes many years to develop, and is often the result of heart disease, a heart attack, or a heart valve defect. With CHF one or both of the chambers of the heart (ventricles) responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood to the body become weak. The heart muscle is not strong enough to sufficiently pump blood to all parts of the body. When CHF occurs in the left ventricle, blood and fluid collect in the lungs or heart. When CHF occurs in the right ventricle, fluid congests the legs and feet. Congestive Heart Failure is the number one cause of death in people age 65 and older. With CHF, the cause of death is either acute pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs), or an arrhythmia (irregular heart beat).

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Like a heart attack, a stroke is the result of inadequate blood flow, but the affected organ is the brain rather than the heart. A stroke occurs when arteries bringing oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain become blocked or burst. Without the oxygen-rich blood, the affected brain tissue begins to die. The physical effects of a stroke depend on the area of the brain that is affected. A stroke can lead to permanent impairment of mental function, vision, coordination, speech, and even paralysis and death. A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) is similar to a stroke, but the blood flow to the brain is only temporarily blocked or slowed. A TIA may have the same symptoms of a stroke, but the effects only last from a few minutes to 24-hours and then disappear. Although the effects of a TIA are not permanent, a TIA is a serious warning sign of stroke risk.

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There are three primary types of diabetes; Type-1, Type-2, and Gestational. 

Type-1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder where the immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin which is an important hormone needed for the body to absorb blood sugar or glucose.

Type-2 diabetes is a disease where the pancreas produces insulin, but the body is unable to use it appropriately to absorb blood sugar for energy. This type of diabetes is often associated with lifestyle and modifiable risk factors such as poor diet, physical inactivity, and being overweight. 

Gestational diabetes is a condition that occurs in pregnant women sometimes, and is characterized by a lack of insulin production. This form of diabetes usually goes away shortly after child birth, but can lead to the development of Type-2 diabetes later in life.

COPDChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a breathing condition that worsens over time, making it hard to breath and interferes with the ability to do activities. Those with chronic bronchitis or emphysema are said to have COPD. Symptoms of COPD include regular coughing that produces phlegm or mucus, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. COPD is the 3rd leading cause of death in the United States, and cigarette smoking is the leading risk factor for developing COPD.

Lung CancerLung Cancer
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Lung cancer is a life-threatening condition that occurs when cancer cells form in the lungs, usually in the cells lining the air passages. There are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common, faster growing, and often spreads to other organs. Treatment methods are specific to the type of lung cancer present because each grows and spreads differently. While cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, other risks include exposure to 2nd-hand smoke, air pollution, asbestos, radon gas, radiation therapy of the lungs, and several other chemicals. However, lung cancer can also develop if it runs in your immediate family. Because lung cancer is the deadliest form of cancer for both men and women, it is important to avoid the risk associated with the condition.

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